CH (209): 1st Amandement Vs. Civil Rights

“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances” (First Amandement of U.S.)

Kasus Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church and School v. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, menunjukkan kepada Saya bahwa sekuat-kuatnya Amerika Serikat mempertahankan tradisi pemisahan antara negara dan agama seperti tertuang dalam First Amandement, namun “rembesan” masih bisa terjadi.

Argumen pemisahan antara agama dan negara menjadi poin utama Douglas Laycock, Profesor Hukum dari Universitas Virginia, yang mewakili Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church and School. Namun sejumlah hakim yang ikut proses oral argument di Mahkamah Agung Amerika Serikat, mempunyai pandangan yang berbeda. Menurut mereka, kasus tersebut tidak termasuk dalam ministerial exception (dengan dokrin ini, pengadilan federal bisa menolak kasus-kasus diskriminasi yang diajukan oleh bawahan terhadap lembaga agama), dan lebih melihatnya sebagai pelanggaran terhadap hak-hak masyarakat sipil. Lalu apa sih masalahnya? Berikut disarikan oleh

In 2000, Hosanna-Tabor, a Lutheran grade school in Michigan, made Cheryl Perich a “commissioned minister” so that she could be promoted from a year-to-year contract employee to a “called” teacher deemed religiously fit for a permanent position at the school. As a called teacher, Perich taught a variety of secular subjects as well as a religion class. In 2004, she went on disability leave for what was soon diagnosed as narcolepsy. Per its policy, the school asked her to resign once her absence exceeded six months, but she refused. Rather than submit to the school’s request that her complaint be handled within the Lutheran church’s own adjudicative process, Perich threatened to file suit with the EEOC under the Americans with Disabilities Act. In response, the Hosanna-Tabor congregation rescinded Perich’s “call,” which drove her to follow through on her threat to file with the EEOC.

Selengkapnya dapat dibaca di transkrip oral argumen Mahkamah Agung Amerika Serikat. (sfm).



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